Abbreviations

 A       Adenine

AAV    Adeno-Associated Virus
ACP    Acyl carrier protein

ADA    Adeno-Associated Virus
ADP    Adenosine diphosphate
Ala      Alanine

AIAD   Alphal-Antitrypsin Deficiency

ALV     Avian Leukosis Virus
AMP    Adenosine monophosphate
cAMP  Cyclic AMP
Arg     Arginine
Asn     Asparagine
Asp     Aspartate
ATP     Adenosine triphosphate
ATPase Adenosine triphosphatase

ATCC    American Type Culture Collection

ßhCG    β-human chorionic gonadotropin

BrdU     5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine

BSS       Balanced salt solution
C          Cytosine

CAG      Cytosine-Adenine-Guanine
CDP      Cytidine diphosphate

CFE       Colony-forming efficiency
CMP      Cytidine monophosphate

CMC      Carboxy Methyl Cellulose

CNTF     Ciliary Neurotropic Factor

CPD       Cumulative population doublings

CPE       Cytopathogenic effect
CoA       Coenzyme A
CoQ      Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone)
CTP       Cytidine triphosphate
cAMP    Adenosine 3 ,5 -cyclic monophosphate
cGMP    Guanosine 3 ,5 -cyclic monophosphate
Cys       Cysteine
Cyt       Cytochrome
DNA     Deoxyribonucleic acid
cDNA    Complementary DNA

DAPI     4,6-diaminophenylindole

DMEM   Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium

DMF      Dimethylformamide

DMSO    Dimethyl sulfoxide

DAF        Decay Accelerating Factor

DMD      Duchenne muscular dystrophy
DNAse   Deoxyribonuclease

EBV       Epstein-Barr virus 

ECM      Extracellular matrix

EGF       Epidermal growth factor

EGFP     Enhanced green fluorescent protein

ELISA     Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant assay

ES          Embryonic stem
EcoRI      EcoRI restriction endonuclease
EF          Elongation factor

FACS      Fluorescence activated cell sorting
FAD       Flavin adenine dinucleotide (oxidized form)
FADH2   Flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced form)

FCS        Fetal calf serum

FGF        Fibroblast growth factor

FISH      Fluorescence in situ hybridization

FTC        Fluorescein isothiocyanate
fMet       Formylmethionine
FMN       Flavin mononucleotide (oxidized form)
FMNH2   Flavin mononucleotide (reduced form)
G            Guanine

GCV       Gancyclovir
GDP       Guanosine diphosphate
Gln         Glutamine
Glu         Glutamate
Gly         Glycine
GMP       Guanosine monophosphate
cGMP     Cyclic GMP

GnRH     Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
GSH       Reduced glutathione
GTP       Guanosine triphosphate
GTPase  Guanosine triphosphatase

GVHD    Graft-versus-host discase

HAT medium  Medium containing hypoxanthine aminopterin and Thymidine

HAC              Human Artificial Chromosome

HBV      Hepatitis B virus   
Hb        Hemoglobin
HDL     High-density lipoprotein

HDF      Human dermal fibroblast

HEPA    High Efficiency Particle Filter
HGPRT  Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase
His        Histidine

HIV     Human immunodeficiency virus
Hyp     Hydroxyproline

ICE      Interleukin 1 β-converting enzyme

IFGT    Irradiation fusion gene transfer
IgG      Immunoglobulin G

IL        Interleukin
Ile       Isoleucine
IP3      Inositol 1,4,5,-trisphosphate
ITP      Inosine triphosphate

JIVET  Juvenile In -Vitro Embryo Transfer

KSM   Keratinocyte serum free media

KGF    Keratinocyte growth factor
LDL    Low-density lipoprotein

LDH    Lactate dehydrogenase
Leu     Leucine
Lys      Lysine

MAS    Marker Assisted Selection

MBC    Minimum Bactericidal Concentration
Met     Methionine

MCTS  Multicellular tumour spheroids

MMCT  Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer

MX medium   Medium containing mycophenolic acid and xanthine

NaBt              Sodium butyrate
NAD+            Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized form)
NADH           Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form)
NADP+          Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (oxidized form)
NADPH         Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form)
PFK               Phosphofructokinase
Phe               Phenylalanine
Pi                  Inorganic orthophosphate
PLP               Pyridoxal phosphate
PPi                Inorganic pyrophosphate
Pro                Proline
PRPP             5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate

PVP               Polyvinyl Pyrolidone
Q                   Ubiquinone (or plastoquinone)
QH2               Ubiquinol (or plastoquinol)
RNA               Ribonucleic acid
mRNA            Messenger RNA
rRNA              Ribosomal RNA
scRNA            Small cytoplasmic RNA
snRNA            Small nuclear RNA
tRNA              Transfer RNA
RNAse            Ribonuclease
Ser                 Serine
T                    Thymine

TCA                 Trichloroacetic Acid

TDT                 Thermal Death Time

TET                 Tubal Embryo Transfer
Thr                 Threonine

TNF                Tumor Necrosis Factor

TPA                 Tissue Plasminogen Activator
TPP                 Thiamine pyrophosphate
Trp                  Tryptophan
TTP                 Thymidine triphosphate
Tyr                  Tyrosine
U                     Uracil
UDP                 Uridine diphosphate
UDP-galactose  Uridine diphosphate galactose
UDP-glucose      Uridine diphosphate glucose
UMP                  Uridine monphosphate
UTP                   Uridine triphosphate
Val                     Valine
VLDL                 Very low density lipoprotein

X-SCID                 X-linked severe combined immune deficiency