List of tools and techniques to be used for biotechnological aspects :

Serial no. Techniques in Biotechnology       Applications                      Uses
A. Gel- electrophoresis 1 Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) Protein
2  Agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) DNA and RNA
3 Native gel electrophoresis Protein oligomers
4 Isoelectric focusing Proteins based on pH
5 Pulse field gel electrophoresis DNA
6 2-D Gel electrophoresis Analysing Proteins
7 Semi-Denaturating Detergent AGE Polymers
8 Zymography Hydrolytic Enzymes
9 Fast parallel proteolysis Thermostability of proteins
B.  Blotting 1 Southern DNA
2 Northern mRNA
3 Reverse Northern cDNA
4 Western Protein
5 Far-western Protein-protein interactions
6 Eastern Post-translational Modifications
7 Far-eastern Glycolipids
C. Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) 1 Conventional PCR Amplification of DNA or RNA
2 Nested PCR reduces non-specific binding
3 Multiplex PCR Amplification of multiple targets
4 Quantitative  Real-time PCR Real-time quantification during amplification of DNA
5 Arbitrary Primed PCR Obtaining a unique set of sequences for a particular genome
D. Chromatography 1 Column Purification of biomolecules
2 Ion-exchange Separating charged proteins
3 Gel-permeation or size exclusion Based on molecular sizes
4 Affinity Purification of enzymes, hormones, nucleic acids, antibodies and proteins
5 Paper Separating mixtures of compounds
6 Thin-layer Fluorescence or radioactive tagged samples
7 Gas For separating very minute molecules
8 Dye-ligand More precise affinity separation
9 Hydrophobic -interaction Ligand binding
10 Pseudo-affinity Separation of enzymes
11 High-pressure liquid Biologically active molecules like amino acids and lipids.
E. Microscopy 1 Bright-field Utilizes transmitted light to observe at high magnification
2 Binocular stereoscopic Observation of  3-D objects at low magnification
3 Polarizing Utilizes different light transmission characteristics of materials
4 Phase contrast Visualizes minute surface irregularities by light interference
5 Differential interference Higher resolution phase contrast
6 Fluorescence Uses mercury or argon lamps to observe fluorescence by the samples
7 Total internal reflection High resolution fluorescence microscopy at surface
8 Laser scanning confocal Uses pinhole concept and different focal distances to observe at very high resolution and low background
9 Multiphoton excitation Multiple lasers to reduce damage to the cells
10 Structured illumination Minimizes diffraction of light
11 Transmission electron Electron microscopy to observe thin specimens through which electrons can pass
12 Scanning electron Emission of electrons from surface of the specimen is observed
13 Atomic force Used to measure forces between probe as a function of their separation
14 Scanning near-field optical Nanostructure investigation by evanescent waves
15 X-ray microscope Uses X-rays to observes very small objects
16 Ultrasonic or acoustic It is can make visible images of internal structures, cracks etc. using ultrasonic waves
17 Cryo-electron Samples are observed at very low temperatures, can help to observe protein structures
F. Spectroscopy 1 X-ray crystallography Studying materials based on their scattering of light
2 Flame Metallic element analytes present at low concentration
3 Atomic emission Light emitted by excited atoms is measured
4 Atomic absorption Light absorbed by excited atoms is measured
5 Spark or arc Atoms are excited using electric sparks
6 Ultraviolet Concentration of Protein or DNA in asample
7 Infrared or near infrared To find the types of bonds present between different substances
8 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Structure of molecules using magnetic fields around the nuclei
9 Raman Vibrations and relative motions of atomic nuclei are studied
10 Fluorescence Analyses fluorescence produced by the excitation of samples
11 Circular dichroism The secondary structure of proteins
12 Correlation 2-D NMR spectroscopy
13 Mass spectrometry The mass to charge ratio of different constituents are measured
14 Photoacoustic Measures the sound waves upon absorption of radiation
15 Photoemission Measures the electrons emitted by the photoelectric effect
16 Photo-thermal Measures the heat evolved upon absorption
17 Pump-probe To identify reaction intermediates
18 Time-resolved Measures decay rates of excited states
19 Neutron spin echo Internal dynamics in proteins and soft matter systems
20 Hadron Energy/mass spectrum is obtained according to spin, parity etc.


G.                 Microarray 1 DNA, Protein, glycan and Peptide
2 MM-chips
3 Tissue and cellular
4 Chemical compounds or antibodies
5 Reverse phase protein
6 Interferometric reflectance imaging sensor
H.                 Centrifuge 1 Differential
2 Isopycnic
3 Sucrose gradient
4 Ultracentrifuge
I.                DNA sequencing 1 Maxam-Gilbert sequencing
2 Chain-termination methods
3 Bridge PCR
4 Shotgun sequencing
5 Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS)
6 Polony sequencing
7 Illumina (Solexa) sequencing
8 Combinatorial probe anchor synthesis (cPAS)
9 Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing
10 Heliscope single molecule sequencing
11 Single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing
12 Nanopore DNA sequencing
13 DNA nanoball sequencing
14 Tunnelling currents DNA sequencing
15 Sequencing with mass spectrometry
16 Microfluidic Sanger sequencing
17 Sequencing by hybridization
18 In vitro virus high-throughput sequencing
19 RNAP sequencing
J.                 Immunoassay 1 Radioimmunoassay
2 Counting Immunoassay
3 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
4 Fluoroimmnoassay
5 Chemiluminescenceimmunoassay
6 Co-immunoprecipitation
7 Biomolecular fluorescence complementation
8 Tandem affinity purification
9 Strepprotein interaction experiment
10 Quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knock-down
11 Immunoelectrophoresis
K.             Ligand binding assays 1 Saturation Binding
2 Competition binding
3 Fluorescence Polarization (FP)
4 Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)
5 Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)
6 Immunoprecipitation
7 Liquid scintillation counting
8 Multi-well Plate Assays
9 On-Bead Ligand Binding assays
10 On-Column Ligand Binding Assays
11 Real-time cell-binding assay
12 Proximity ligation assay
L.                ELISA
1 Direct
2 Sandwich
3 Competitive
M.               FAME    
N.               Non-vascular infusion technology    
O.                Fermentation 1 Batch
2 Feb-batch
3 Continuous
P.                 Biomolecular engineering 1 Recombinant DNA
2 Site-directed mutagenesis
3 Bio-immobilization and conjugation
Q.                Food technology 1 Instantized food
2 Freeze drying
3 High temperature short time processing
4 Decaffeination
5 Process optimization
R.                  Genetic engineering 1 Gene manipulation
2 Gene isolation
3 Transformation
4 Transfection
5 Transduction
S.                   Yeast two-hybrid    
T.                    Microfluidics 1 Open
2 Continuous
3 Droplet-based
4 Digital
5 Paper-based
6 DNA chips
7 Transcriptome analysis
8 Microorganism capturing
9 Nanofluidics
10 Optofluidics
11 Acoustic droplet ejection
12 Electroosmotic pump
13 Capillary electrophoresis
14 On-chip characterization
U.                  Biomimetics and Bionics 1 Respirocytes
2 Neuromorphics
3 Silicon retinae
4 Biomorphic mineralization