Table of contents under genetics


Bacterial mutants and mutations

Isolation; useful phenotypes (auxotrophic; conditional lethal; resistant)

Mutation rate; Types of mutations (base pair changes; frame  shift; insertions; deletions; tandem duplication); Reversion vs. suppression

Mutagenic agents

Mechanisms of mutagenesis

Assay of mutagenic agents (Ames test)

Gene transfer in bacteria


Transduction – generalized and specialized

Conjugation – F, F’, Hfr; F transfer; Hfr-mediated chromosome transfer

Transformation – natural and artificial transformation

Merodiploid generation

Gene mapping

Transposable genetic elements; Insertion sequences; Composite and Complex transposons; Replicative and non-replicative transposition; Genetic analysis using transposons.

Bacteriophages and Plasmids

Bacteriophage – structure; assay

Lambda phage – genetic map, lysogenic and lytic cycles, Gene regulation

Filamentous phages such as M13

Plasmids – natural plasmids; their properties and phenotypes; Plasmid biology – copy number and its control; Incompatibility; Plasmid survival strategies; Antibiotic resistance markers on plasmids (mechanism of action and resistance); Genetic analysis using phage and plasmid

Restriction-modification systems

History; types of systems and their characteristics; Methylation-dependent restriction systems; applications.

Mendelian Genetics

Introduction to human genetics; Background and history

Types of genetic diseases

Role of genetics in medicine

Human pedigrees

Patterns of single gene inheritance – autosomal recessive; autosomal dominant

X linked inheritance

Complicating factors – incomplete penetrance

variable expression

Multiple alleles

Co dominance

Sex influenced expression

Hemoglobinopathies – Genetic disorders of hemoglobin and their diseases

Non Mendelian inheritance patterns

Mitochondrial inheritance

genomic imprinting

Lyon hypothesis


Complex inheritance – genetic and environmental variation

Heritability; Twin studies

Behavioral traits; Analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits


Cell division and errors in cell division

Non disjunction

Structural and numerical chromosomal

abnormalities – deletion; duplication; translocation

Sex determination; Role of Y chromosome

Genetic recombination

Disorders of sex chromosomes and autosomes

Molecular cytogenetics – Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH).

Developmental genetics

Genes in early development

Maternal effect genes

Paternal  formation genes

Homeotic genes

Signaling and adhesion molecules.


Major histocompatibility complex

Immunoglobulin genes – tissue antigen and organ transplantation

Single gene disorders of immune system.

Genetic variation

Mutations; kinds of mutation; agents of mutation

genome polymorphism; uses of polymorphism

Gene maping and human genome project

Physical mapping; linkage and association

Population genetics and evolution

Phenotype; genotype; gene frequency

Hardy-Weinberg law; Factors distinguishing Hardy-Weinberg


Mutation selection; Migration; Gene flow; Genetic drift

Human genetic diversity;

Origin of major human groups.