Model organism– Model organisms are most frequently studied organisms which are differences by other organisms due to the its  distinguishable parameters for specific purposes. These parameters are short life span or short generation time , characterized genome(like small genome), suitable for specific trait analysis, and disease analysis , small size organisms, easy to accessible by laboratory studies and amenable to genetic modification and easy  to maintain and breed in a laboratory condition. 

 Key points:

  • Model organisms are central to research and development in  developmental biology and modern biotechnology. 

  • Well known biology of the model organisms are necessary. 

  • Model organisms are non- human species.  

List of model organisms at the kingdom level 

Sl. No. Kingdom of model organisms
1. Monera 
2.  Protista 
3.  Fungi
4.  Plantae 
5.  Animalia

Remarks: In past and still,  many viruses are  used as model organisms.

References: 

  1.  Bolker, J.A. (1995). Model systems in developmental biology. BioEssays 17, 451–455
  2. Pandey, Govind. (2014). Model organisms used in molecular biology or medical research. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2. 62-65.
  3. Valerie Reinke and Kevin P. White, Developmental Genomic Approaches in Model Organisms 2002 3:1, 153-178, Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
  4. Fields S, Johnston M (Mar 2005). Cell biology. Whither model organism research?”. Science307 (5717): 1885–6
  5.  Kari, G.; Rodeck, U.; Dicker, A. P. (July 2007). “Zebrafish: an emerging model system for human disease and drug discovery”. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics82 (1): 70–80

Model Organism Genome database Websites

  1. www.gmod.org/wiki/Main_Page
  2. www.geneontology.org
  3. www.informatics.jax.org
  4. www.rgd.mcw.edu
  5. genome.ucsc.edu
  6. www.yeastgenome.org
  7. http://zfin.org
  8. www.wormbase.org
  9. https://www.plantcyc.org
  10. https://www.uniprot.org/ 
  11. http://www2.bio.ku.dk 
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim