Energy source is one of the basic needs for survival of any living organism. Food used as source of energy by human beings. Now our food source comes from agricultural practices by farmers. We know that global populations mainly depending on conventional food production and land as platform for crop growing. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that the global human population may reach 10 Billion by 2050 as well as there is so strong evidence that agriculture will not be able to meet the demand which will lead to serious risk of food scarcity for the generation of the next era . Scientists are trying to the development of alternative food source other than conventional food( used as land) called as non – conventional food (NCF). Non- conventional food may be microbes( Bacteria, Fungi), algae , insects etc. It may be used as whole body( parts). Scientists discovered microbes are riched in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins ,fats , minerals and essential amino acids and also used as food supplements. The concept of single cell protein (SCP) is central to non – conventional food . SCP refers to edible unicellular protein rich microorganisms. SCP may be fungi , yeast, algae, and bacteria. For examples spirulina is a cyanobacteria( blue- green algae) and well known for high protein content. Other example is Chlorella which is green algae and also content proteins , minerals, vitamins etc . Both ( Spirulina & Chlorella ) are used as food supplement currently. Now India is grown ups in the field of large scale production of Spirulina and Chlorella. Not only this , in many countries insects used as part of food . Some of the insects are beneficial for dietry source of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats, minerals and essential amino acids. Its larva and adult stages are more beneficial. In the case of bacteria , research is going on . Using the Biotechnology tools more bacterial species can be used as protein and carbohydrate source. Past experiment was fail but Biotechnology tools recombinant DNA technology (RDT) is able to producing desire protein content bacterium. Gene of interest (GOI) of protein in a bacterium may helps to production of desire protein. After the selection of SCP and insects , its large scale production for commercial utilization for public is ultimate destination without the side effect or bad health concerns. In the future these non – conventional foods will see in the market and formulation may be solid or powdered form( dried) , liquid or semi- solid. These are not thematic and process is ongoing which is more beneficial to our next generation along with high population.