Bioinformatics

Introduction: Bioinformatics

Literally, the word Bioinformatics consists of two words: Biology and information. We can say, bioinformatics is the science of biological information. It is an interdisciplinary field of applied Biological science and has become key of modern Biotechnology. Bioinformatics provides the solution of complex biological datasets into a simpler form for researchers. This branch has become wide and integral part of computational molecular Biology. In this branch , computer plays a significant role and software (tools) helps in synchronization and arrangement of raw Biological data (or in random data) into significant forms. There are various forms of biological data to be used in basic to applied manners depends on researchers what they want to do. The retrieval of biological data from the living system is the major determinant of research objectives. But the major raw biological data are nucleic acid sequences such as DNA and RNA  and amino acid sequences in proteins and peptides. Bioinformatics software packages (tools) plays important roles in the modern breeding program during synchronization of genotype to phenotype ( reverse genetics). Synchronization of different biological datasets and their predictions at the molecular level is the significant strategies in modern biotechnology. Bioinformatics has broad spectrum applications in various fields of life sciences and great deals with agriculture, medicine and healthcare and biodiversity conservation along with human welfare. In medical science, to diagnosis and treatment of diseases, bioinformatics plays a good job. It helps in drug discovery, gene therapy, prediction of drug action, mathematical modelling of metabolic processes, signalling and regulatory pathways determination. Due to the bioinformatics, an advanced branch has emerged which is Systems Biology.Systems Biology majorly based on bioinformatics.  Bioinformatics tool helps in sketching and drawing of cells, metabolic pathways, regulatory mechanism pathways, structures of bio-molecules and modelling diagram at the molecular level. The applications of bioinformatics are limitless. In modern time, bioinformatics is the pillar of biotechnology and it is an extension of applications of computer science in biological sciences.

Topics in Bioinformatics :

1.Introduction to bioinformatics, Development and scope of bioinformatics, Aims, tasks and tools of bioinformatics.

  1. 2.Biological significance of bioinformatics

    3. Major parts of Bioinformatics

  • Genomics

  • Transcriptomics

  • Proteomics

  • Metabolomics                

4.Classification of Biological Database

  • DNA  Databases

  • RNA   Databases

  • Amino Acid Databases

  • Protein Databases

  • Gene Expression Databases

5. 3D-Structural Databases

6.  Literature Databases

7.  Chemical Databases

8.  Other Databases

9.  Sequence Analysis

  •  DNA sequence analysis 

  •  Protein sequence analysis

10.Sequence Alignments

  • Pairwise Sequence Alignment

  • Multiple Sequence Alignment

11.Dynamic Programming

  • Local Dynamic Programming

  • Global Dynamic Programming

12. Sequence Formats

13.Sequence Alignment search tools

  • BLAST

  • FASTA

14.Predictions tools and  softwares  for Biological sequences analysis

15.Molecular Phylogenetics

16.Phylogenetic tress

17. Molecular Pathway modeling

18. Molecular interactions

  • Protein-Protein

  •  Protein-DNA

  • Protein-RNA

  • Protein-Carbohydrates

  • Protein lipids

19. Applications of Bioinformatics in Drug -Designing