Article Writer-   Minakshi  Kumari, MSc. Biotechnology , RCA, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology ,Udaipur, Rajsthan(India)

In the historical development, by the scientists of California Institute of Technology(Caltech) found the bacteria that can degrade Manganese metal by oxidizing it to Manganese oxide. Manganese labeled with C13 was used by the researchers which were incorporated into the bacterial cell, that confirmed the suspected bacteria are autotrophic and use the Manganese element as fuel (the process called Chemosynthesis). Two bacterial species so discovered are Nitrospirae (also known as Nitrospirota, Crescent shape) and Betaproteobacterium (rod shape), whose relatives are usually present in groundwater. This discovery would prove a milestone in the understanding of the Manganese cycle on earth.


Yu, H., Leadbetter, J.R. Bacterial chemolithoautotrophy via manganese oxidation. Nature 583, 453–458 (2020).